Steroid - Pharmacological actions of steroids - …
80% of endogenous cholesterol is formed in the liver. Enzymes involved in the synthesis are partly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and partly in the cytoplasm. Acetyl CoA is the precursor. HMG CoA, mevalonate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, squalene are some of the important intermediate compounds formed during cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol is transported in lipoprotein complexes. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to the deposition of cholesterol on the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis.
2-methyl butyric acid, 116-53-0 - The Good Scents …
Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.
Fatty acid biosynthesis
The enzymes of synthesis are located in the cytoplasm. Acetyl CoA is the source of carbon units and NADPH provides reducing equivalents. ATP is the supplier of energy. Synthesis is not the reversal of oxidation. Dimer of fatty acid synthase takes part in fatty acid synthesis. TAGs are synthesized from fatty acyl CoA and glycerol 3-phosphate or dihydroxy acetone phosphate. TAG gets deposited in adipose tissue.