Geoaccumulation of benzoic acid has also been found to be low.
In other species, this metabolite appears only after higher doses of about 500 mg/kg body weight (see above) of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate, resulting in a depletion of the glycine pool (Bridges et al., 1970; US FDA, 1972a; Kubota et al., 1988).
Table 5: Genotoxicity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in vitro.
Yomota C, Isshiki K, Kato T, Kamikura M, Shiroishi Y, Nishijima M, Hayashi H, Hukasawa Y, Yokojama T, Yoneda M, Moriguchi H, Uchiyama H, Shiro T, Ito Y (1988) [Estimation of daily intake of 8 kinds of organic acids, 4 kinds of nucleic acids, ortho-phosphate, benzoic acid, glycerol monostearate, sodium alginate, sulfur dioxide, nitrate, nitrite, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and ammonium hydroxide from fresh foods purchased in Japan according to the market basket method.] Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science, 41:11-16 (in Japanese).
Studies on the precursors of benzoic acid -- benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde -- support the notion that it is unlikely that benzoic acid is carcinogenic.
Halvorson DO (1984) Determination of benzoic acid in air.
The rate of biotransformation in humans is high: after oral doses of 40, 80 or 160 mg sodium benzoate/kg body weight, the transformation to hippuric acid was independent of the dose -- about 17-29 mg/kg body weight per hour, corresponding to about 500 mg/kg body weight per day (Kubota & Ishizaki, 1991).
(1983) Primary eye irritation of benzoic acid to rabbits.
In some species, including humans, minor amounts of benzoic acid itself are also excreted in the urine (Bridges et al., 1970; Kubota & Ishizaki, 1991).
The synthesis of mandelic acid starts from benzaldehyde:
After oral and dermal uptake, benzoate is metabolized in the liver by conjugation with glycine, resulting in the formation of hippuric acid (Feldmann & Maibach, 1970; US FDA, 1972a; WHO, 1996; Feillet & Leonard, 1998).
Synthesis description for preparation of BENZOIC ACID
Experiments on the distribution and elimination of 14C-benzoate in the rat have shown no accumulation of sodium benzoate or benzoic acid in the body (US FDA, 1972a, 1973).
Benzaldehyde, for synthesis, 95.0%; ..
In a study with six human subjects, Feldmann & Maibach (1970) found an uptake of 36% of the applied dose (14C-labelled benzoic acid dissolved in acetone; 4 µg/cm2; circular area of 13 cm2; ventral surface of the forearm; non-occlusive) within 12 h.
How can we control the conversion of Benzaldehyde to Benzoic ..
Benzyl acetate, its hydrolysis product, benzyl alcohol, and the oxidation product of this alcohol, benzaldehyde, are precursors of benzoic acid in experimental animals and humans.