AQA | GCSE | Biology | Subject content
(iii)It was hoped that candidates would apply their knowledge about increased reaction time to the context of the risks of driving a car after drinking. However many merely restated their answer to(i), without giving an example, such as taking too long to respond to a hazard in the road thus precipitating a car crash.
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Any movement discrepancy observed , should be confirmed using special tests such as one leg standing - pelvic control. Additionally, manual muscle testing as well as muscle energy techniques, myofascial dry-needling and joint mobilisations can confirm or negate the 'working hypothesis' of what is causing the dysfunction.
Upslips: can be the result of a sudden vertical force through the outstretched leg for example when stepping into a pot hole, landing awkwardly during a jump or when running. car accidents where the persons foot is on the brake and the force goes up longitudinally through the thigh is also a common mechanism of an upslip. Upslips are generally accompanied by counternutation of the sacrum (anterior rotation of the innominate) which results in tension of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Tightness in the quadratus lumborum and psoas major may contribute to an upslip.
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How does the client walk, run, lift, swim? What is the lumbo-pelvic control and what is the timing between the muscles? For example, do the hamstrings activate before the gluteus maximus? What is the timing between the erector spinae muscles with arm movements and rocking movements? Can this timing be enhanced by activation of pelvic floor muscles? Is there reduced hip extension (due increased Iliopsoas activity) causing ipsilateral pelvic rotation (in the horizontal plane) resulting in shortening of the contralateral piriformis muscle? This latter scenario may be accompanied with ipsilaterally reduced Prone Knee Bend (PKB) and reduced contralateral Straight Leg Raise (SLR). When extending the hip in prone with a flexed knee does the lumbar spine hyperextend at an unstable segment or rock to one side as can occur with an 'active extension impairment' with it's mal-adaptive spinal stabilising coactivation of erector spinae and iliopsoas?