Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome Machines - Duration: …

Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Flashcards | Quizlet
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Bacterial ribosome translating RNA into protein - YouTube

"The big question has been to understand how messenger RNA and transfer RNA are moved synchronously through the ribosome as the messenger RNA is translated into protein," Noller said. "The transfer RNAs are large macromolecules, and the ribosome has moving parts that enable it to move them through quickly and accurately at a rate of 20 per second."

29/10/2009 · Bacterial ribosome translating RNA into protein Chemistry World
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Protein Synthesis and the Lean, ..

The translation of genetic information into proteins is essential forlife. At the core of this process lies the ribosome, a quintessentiallarge (2.5-4.5 MDa) molecular machine responsible for translatinggenetic material into functional proteins. In a growing cell, ribosomescomprise up to half of the net dry weight. Because of its fundamental rolein the cell, 50% of all efforts to develop antibiotics target bacterialribosomes, taking advantage of the structural differences between bacterialand human ribosomes.

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The structural basis for TnaC-mediated translational stalling wasaddressed by obtaining a 5.8-Å cryo-EM map of the ribosome stalled byTnaC and high concentrations of tryptophan (Fig. 8). The cryo-EM datashows that the nascent chain adopts a distinct conformation in the exittunnel. We applied MDFF to obtain an atomic model of the entire ribosomeand the stalling nascent chain (Fig. 8F). The model allowed us to mapthe contacts between TnaC and the exit tunnel, as well as proposepossible communication pathways that would lead to inactivation of thecatalytic center of the ribosome (the so-called peptidyltransferasecenter, or PTC). One of the main findings was that two criticalribosomal residues at the PTC adopt conformations that are incompatiblewith cohabitation by release factors, which catalyze termination ofprotein synthesis.

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Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis by the Ribosome

Scientists have long known that transfer RNA – which adds amino acids to a growing chain during protein synthesis – holds a surprising secret when it comes to its base pairs: occasionally, instead of the expected A-U or G-C pairs, there exists instead a mispair of A-C or G-U. However, the role and importance of mispairs has never been well understood, says McClain.

Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Peptidoglycan Synthesis

Genetic information is encoded in DNA, which is made up of matched base pairs of adenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine – commonly denoted with the letters A, T, G and C. Cellular machinery transcribes the information from DNA into RNA – where the base uracil replaces thymine – and then translates the coded data into proteins, which form the building blocks of life.

Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Peptidoglycan Synthesis ..

McClain, who has spent his career investigating how transfer RNA selects specific amino acids during protein synthesis, was curious about how mispairs affect the function of RNA. In the study reported in PNAS, he altered the position of a G-U mispair in a bacterial plasmid – by literally moving the mispair up and down the molecule’s cloverleaf structure – and demonstrated that the mutation increases the ability of the RNA to accept amino acids and improves its efficiency at moving through the ribosome, the cellular organelle where translation occurs. In fact, removing the mispair or repairing it to make it a correct matched pair inactivated the molecule completely.

Translation: Protein Synthesis | Boundless Microbiology

Second, penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which mediate the final stages of PG synthesis, have been localized in various model organisms by means of immunofluorescence microscopy or green fluorescent protein fusions.

Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Chloramphenicol

It serves many functions for the cell, including energy generation and transport of chemicals .
ribosomes - Small organelles composed of RNA-rich granules that are sites of protein synthesis.