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Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Oil against Human Enteric Bacteria Methodology The researchers will make use of the agar disk diffusion method.
Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan …
Zinc oxide nanoparticles are already integrated into a variety of medical and skin coatings because of their antimicrobial and/or antifungal properties (Tayel et al., 2010).Table 1 shows antimicrobial activity of ZnO powder and nanoparticles against food borne pathogens.
Garlic ( have been used since antiquity for both medicinal as well as culinary purpose, it is a broad spectrum antibiotic killing a very wide variety of microorganism so called as dietary antibiotic. Besides having potent antioxidant and antimicrobial action, garlic is one of the most commonly used ingredients as a flavor enhancer in meat products. In addition to its flavoring properties, garlic also possesses a wide range of medicinal attributes. These include antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities () and beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. There are a lot of reports concerning the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of garlic on meat products (; ; ; ). Pretreatment with garlic extract and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in both liver and kidney of rats exposed to cadmium-induced oxidative stress ().
Some Common Spices and Plants with Antimicrobial …
Improper diagnosis of any microbial infection leads to untargeted therapy and injudicious use of allopathic drugs, giving way to the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistant pathogens (; ). Thus, due to exhaustive and indiscriminate use of antibacterials the phenomena of antibacterial therapy failure or ineffectiveness has evolved many drug resistant pathogens. Amongst these, multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms are the concealed enemies to the mankind and animals (). The development of antimicrobial resistance among the bacteria is an important issue for treatment of infectious diseases in man as well as animals. Although, there is progress in research and development of new and improved salts of antimicrobial agents but the bacteria are developing resistances to these antibiotics at a higher pace from it. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of the currently available bacterial agents, isolated from different cases of infections, revealed resistant strains even against multiple drugs (; ; ; ).
Antimicrobial properties of copper - Wikipedia
Antimicrobial peptides: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs) are small peptides (30-60 s) and can be isolated from all living organisms. They are essential components of the innate immune system and possess antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties (; ). These can directly kill broad range of microbes including bacteria, fungus and viruses (). Till date more than 700 antimicrobial peptides have been identified. After identification, some of these peptides are synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial and immunomodualtory functions. Studies have been conducted on fowlicidin 1 and 3 peptides (; ). These antimicrobial peptides interact with surface membrane of bacteria either by forming discrete pores or by disrupting the membrane bilayer, leading to loss of membrane function, resulting in cell leakage and, consequently, cell death (; ; ). In relation to the full length peptide fowl-1(6-26), an analog from which five-amino terminal residues have been omitted, has helped in maintaining the antibacterial potency against a wide range of Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria that include strains which are resistant to antibiotic (). Recently, other modes of action like inhibition of the synthesis of , proteins, cell-wall components and essential enzymatic activities have also been proposed (). AMPs can be obtained from natural sources, chemical synthesis or by recombinant technology (). Some of the antimicrobial peptides such as colicin and cecropin, particularly cecropin A (1-11)-D (12-37)-Asn (CADN), act as growth promoter in poultry and have been suggested as possible alternate to antibiotic growth promoters ().
Antimicrobial Properties of Plants ..
Apart from the digestive and antioxidant prosperities, the herbs and plant additives may exert the beneficial influence through antimicrobial, immunomodulating and antiparasitic effects. Several natural adjuvants as well as synthetic agents are found to have immunostimulatory properties but various side effects are possessed by them. But the plant immunomodulators that are conventional are cheaper and safe to use. This is the reason why herbal medicines are used as immunomodulatory substances thereby providing alternative potential for the conventional chemotherapy. Patents have been filed regarding several plant extracts as well as compounds and formulations that include: Polysaccharides and lectins; peptides and flavonoids and tannins. Various models have been used to assess their immunomodulatory characteristics. Plants like Ashwagandha (), Neem (), Guduchi () and others are widely used these days due to their potent immunomodulatory and health beneficial properties (; ; ; ; ; ; ; , ). In broilers leaves of nishyinda (); black pepper () and cinnamon () have been used as growth promoters and such polyherbal extracts are found to be safe as growth promoters in production of broilers without any effect on health of chicken adversely (; ; ). suggested that thymol and carvacrol, the active ingredients in thyme exert their antibacterial action through penetration of these components into the Gram negative bacteria. postulated that the active ingredients of the thyme bind to the amine and hydroxylamine groups of bacterial membrane protein and results in the cell lysis. reported that fecal oocyst shedding from birds experimentally infected with was significantly decreased when broiler chickens were fed with a diet containing . reported that Curcumin has considerable effects on sporozoite morphology and viability in a dose-dependent manner after incubation. suggested that immunomodulating effect of garlic is associated with its ability to enhance phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages, increased production of interleukins, interferon (INF-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) secretary metabolism of macrophages and antigen presenting cells.