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variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb ..
Glycosides: Glycosides are found in virtually every and have vast therapeutic efficacy and, certain cases, toxic effect depending on the plant of origin and the dose of plant product ingested. They are glycosylated bioactive principles in which the aglycone moieties are constituted of the alkaloids, vitamins, polyphenols, steroids, terpenoids or antibiotics etc. bound to a mono- or oligosaccharide or to uronic acid (). Glycobiology has revealed that the glycosidic residue is crucial for bioactivity; in other circumstances, glycosylation improves pharmacokinetic parameters and may serve as leads to the development of new and more active drugs, as typified by the recently developed antibiotics-vancomycin (). A precise overview of physiologic role of glycosyl residue in bioactive principles as well as the structure/activity relationship has been described (). The most encountered glycosides of medicinal and toxicological importance are the vitamins glycosides, polyphenolic glycosides (anthraquinone glycosides), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides in the group of antibiotics (streptomycin), glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides etc. (; ; ; ; ; ).
Anthraquinone glycosides are a series of major active ingredients ..
The nephrotoxicity associated with the use of anthraquinones from Rhubarb as laxatives has been successfully circumvented using rhubarb total free anthraquinone oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFAOCDD-GN). The oral colon-specific drug delivery technology allowed anthraquinones to exert purgative effect devoid of intestinal absorption, which promoted their rapid excretion ().
Anthraquinone glycosides are present in fairly limited distribution in plants. In traditional Chinese medicine, anthraquinone glycosides from (rhubarb) in the non-boiled form are administered when catharsis was the desired outcome (; ). Aglycone anthraquinone are anti-fungal, impede renal tubular proliferation and ameliorate inflammations by partial inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway (). Notable plants containing cardiac glycosides include: Dogbane (sp.), Lily of the Valley (sp.), Foxglove (sp.), Oleander (Yellow Oleander (spp.) and Milkweeds ( sp.) (). Cardiac glycosides all contain steroids as the aglycone. Cardiac glycosides from foxglove (sp.), sond, as well as lanoxin derivative from number of plants in low doses serve as medication for cardiac disorders in humans (; ; ).
Anthraquinone Glycosides Flashcards | Quizlet
Antibacterial mechanisms of s and herbs: The antibacterial activities of herbs are multi fold and depend upon the phytoconstituents, concentration of phytoconstituents/phytochemicals and bioactive principles and their synergistic as well as antagonistic actions (; ; ; ; ). These phtochemicals include flavonoids, steroids, β-carotene, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, glycosides, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, gallic acid and others (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Various mechanisms of action and antibacterial abilities of herbal remedies relies on their several beneficial properties viz., immunomodulatory nature with enhancement of both humoral and cell mediated immunity as well ameliorating stress and immunosuppression; cytokine regulation; anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and inhibiting pathogens by a variety of pathways (; ; ; ; ). Many herbs have anti-oxidative potential by counteracting s or metaboloites produced during various biochemical pathways (; ; , ; ). A vast number of herbal plants show anti-inflammatory action by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and thus inhibiting the prostaglandin biosynthesis. Several herbs decreases the production of of inflammatory agents (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin), enhance activity of cortisol and augments bllod circulation which help removing bacterial toxins out of the body (; ). Certain plants contain and carotenoids which have been found to augment both humoral and cell-mediated immune function, thereby reducing risk of infectious by enhancing the antigenic surveillance of the immune system (; ; ; ). Immunomodulation of most of herbal extracts are governed by cytokine regulation as well as anti-inflammatory properties (; ; ; ; ). Certain plants facilitate proliferation of CD4+ T-helper and B type immune cells. Others have been found beneficial in blocking bacterial adherence to different body cells thus help preventing the infection; blocking NF-êB pathway and the motogenic responses in infected cells; causing damage to cell membrane with loss of electrolytes and intracellular contents leading to bacteria death; downregulating the synthesis of LasA protease, LasB elastase and AHL molecules which inhibits the bacterial pathogenesis phenomenon by quorum sensing (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones present in herbs enhance engulfing activity of macrophages, increases the activity of white blood cells and other immune cells which in turn enhances their antimicrobial potentials (; ; ; ). All these factors decide the ultimate effect on host and pathogens and remedial effects of various herbs. Such mechanisms of actions, nature of phytoconstituents and potential antibacterial role/applications of many well established herbs and s have been briefly enlisted in and depicted in .
Anthraquinone group of glycosides 1.
The improved elicitor treatment of the suspension cultures increased the amounts of the natural dyes; the different elicitors, such as fungal polysaccharides and endogenous signal molecules (salicylic and jasmonic acid) provided specific yields of anthraquinone derivatives.