The overall process of photosynthesis takes place in four stages:

Schematic representation of the light‐harvesting antenna systems of PSII and PSI (Jansson, ).

Light-harvesting complexes of green plants ..

Course deals with a variety of physiological processes occurring in plants. For most students this course will serve as background for other more advanced plant science courses. Thus, the following specific objectives are intended To understand plant structures in the context of physiological function plants, To understand plant water relations, i.e. how plants acquire, utilize, and regulate the flow ofwater between plant and environment, To understand the mineral nutrients plants require, and how they are obtained, metabolized,and transported, To understand the physiological details of photosynthesis and respiration, and how they areorganized and regulated in plants, To understand plant growth and development, and its regulation by hormones and theenvironment.

Oxygen (O2) is a byproduct of photosynthesis and is released into the atmosphere.

The light-harvesting complex (or antenna ..

How is the energy transferred? Is it the same photon that is passed down through adjacent pigment molecules? If so, what happens to the wavelength of the photon? Does it matter that the pigment molecules are specific to a different wavelength than that of the photon? When that photon hits the chlorophyll a or b in the reaction centre why is it that the photon is now at the correct wavelength for these molecules? Perhaps it is actually excited electrons that are passed down?

These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in special antenna-proteins.

The protein complex that constitutes Photosystem I contains eleven , six of which are coded in the nucleus and five are coded in the . The core of Photosystem I contains about 40 molecules of chlorophyll a, several molecules of beta carotene, lipids, four manganese, one iron, several calcium, several chlorine, two molecules of plastoquinone, and two molecules of pheophytin, a colorless form of chlorophyll a .(Moore, et al.)

Fromme P (ed.) (2008) Photosynthetic Protein Complexes: A Structural Approach. Weinheim: Wiley‐VCH.

How many chloroplasts are in a cell that conducts photosynthesis

This diagram is proof that sunlight (input 1) and H2O (input 2) are more important than CO2 (input 3) but each ingredient is considered a limiting factor to maximum photosynthetic productivity (it goes without saying that there is no release of oxygen on short days, cloudy days, or at night).

that absorbs light is referred to as an antenna complex.

The electrons from photosystem I pass through another electron transport chain containing an iron-containing protein called
ferredoxin (Fd).
They then move to the enzyme NADP reductase that uses the two electrons and H1 ions from the stroma to reduce NADP1 to NADPH

The photosynthetic antenna complex is a ..

Inculcate the knowledge of basic geometries, geometric tools, shapes and procedures used for engineering drawings and different concepts of theory of projections, development, sectioning

The photosynthetic process depends on a set of complex ..

These two experiments illustrate vital points: First, from it is known that, in general, reactions are not affected by . However, these experiments clearly show that temperature affects the rate of carbon assimilation, so there must be two sets of reactions in the full process of carbon assimilation. These are, of course, the stage and the stage. Second, Blackman's experiments illustrate the concept of . Another limiting factor is the wavelength of light. Cyanobacteria, which reside several meters underwater, cannot receive the correct wavelengths required to cause photoinduced charge separation in conventional photosynthetic pigments. To combat this problem, a series of proteins with different pigments surround the reaction center. This unit is called a .

Section 16.3 Photosynthetic Stages and Light-Absorbing Pigments

and , along with , elucidated the path of carbon assimilation (the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle) in plants. The carbon reduction cycle is known as the , which ignores the contribution of Bassham and Benson. Many scientists refer to the cycle as the Calvin-Benson Cycle, Benson-Calvin, and some even call it the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (or CBB) Cycle.