The Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: …

a plenary session titled “The Amyloid Cascade and Alzheimer’s Disease: Hypothesis ..

The beta amyloid hypothesis is the basis of a novel prevention ..

In a 2009 study (Cristensen H. et al.) it was found that there was no direct evidence to support the argument that increased education and brain size was protective (the brain reserve hypothesis) of age-related vessel deterioration. They found that WMH and atrophy were not associated with cognitive changes in these elderly patients. However, in an earlier study (Dufouil C. et al. 2003) they found that education modulated the consequences of WMH on cognition and that participants with a higher level of education were protected against cognitive deterioration related to vascular insults to the brain.

The Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Problems on the Road to Therapeutics

The case for rejecting the amyloid cascade hypothesis

Studies have shown that TBI is three times more common in patients with AD (Graves et al. 1990; Henderson et al. 1992; Mayeux et al. 1993; Mortimer et al. 1985). Nemetz et al (1999) involved a study of over 1,000 patients forty years old and older. There it was found that the history of remote TBI was associated with not an increased risk of development of AD, but it showed that TBI patients who developed AD in the median time between TBI and the onset of AD was 10 years vs. an age-adjusted median of 18 years in those without TBI. This suggests that TBI may reduce the time of onset of AD in vulnerable individuals. Although there is significant discrepancy in the literature, there still appears to be an increasing trend to support the hypothesis that TBI is a potential risk factor for AD. Accumulating evidence implicates traumatic brain injury as a possible predisposing factor in AD development (Van Den Heuvel C et al. 2007). Researchers have determined that the destructive cellular pathways that occur following traumatic brain injury are the same as those activated in AD. Persons who have died of AD, upon examination of the brain, often show a build-up of a toxic peptide called Beta Amyloid. This is similar to what happens in the brain after traumatic injury, when neurons die, there is a build-up of beta amyloid in the brain.

If a family or an individual has the financial means of obtaining such long-term care insurance prior to receiving a TBI injury and planned to obtain it, the attorney for that client should investigate the long term financial implications of the injury and how it will play out in the field of long-term care. A review of many of the leading insures applications for long term care insurance shows the difficulty that TBI clients will face when trying to make such application. If any of the application questions listed below are answered in the affirmative, all of the applications state on page one that it is unnecessary to file out the rest of the application and the long-term care insurance will not be offered if the answer is yes. (For example, if you answered "yes" to any question in this insurability profile, we recommend you do not submit this application). Some examples include: