the aircraft is capable of both translational and rotational motion

The Navier–Stokes equations in their full and simplified forms help with the design of aircraft ..
Photo provided by Flickr

Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering | TUM Asia

The mismatch of visual and vestibular information can also be an important contributory factor. The occupant of a moving vehicle who cannot see out is more likely to suffer from motion sickness than one who has a good external visual reference. The passenger below deck or in an aircraft cabin senses motion of the vehicle by vestibular cues, but he or she receives visual information only of his or her relative movement within the vehicle. The absence of an “expected” and concordant signal in a particular sensory modality is also considered to be the essential feature of visually induced motion sickness, because the visual motion cues are not accompanied by the vestibular signals that the individual “expects” to occur when subjected to the motion indicated by the visual display.

ADA066195. Title : Estimation of Aircraft Target Motion using Pattern Recognition Orientation Measurements. Descriptive Note : Doctoral thesis,
Photo provided by Flickr

UC Berkeley Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several categories of mismatch can be identified. Most important is the mismatch of signals from the vestibular apparatus (labyrinth) of the inner ear, in which the semicircular canals (the specialized receptors of angular accelerations) and the otolith organs (the specialized receptors of translational accelerations) do not provide concordant information. For example, when a head movement is made in a car or aircraft which is turning, both the semicircular canals and the otoliths are stimulated in an atypical manner and provide erroneous and incompatible information, information that differs substantially from that generated by the same head movement in a stable, 1-G gravity environment. Likewise, low-frequency (below 0.5 Hz) linear accelerations, such as occur aboard ship in rough seas or in an aircraft during flight through turbulent air, also generate conflicting vestibular signals and, hence, are a potent cause of motion sickness.

On Apr 1, 1981 J.D. Kendrick (and others) published: Estimation of Aircraft Target Motion Using Orientation Measurements
Photo provided by Flickr

Not surprisingly, the occurrence of sickness varies widely in different motion environments. For example: nearly all the occupants of life rafts in rough seas will vomit; 60% of student aircrew members suffer from air sickness at some time during training, which in 15% is sufficiently severe to interfere with training; in contrast, less than 0.5% of passengers in civil transport aircraft are affected, although the incidence is higher in small commuter aircraft flying at low altitude in turbulent air.

Chapter 50 - Vibration VIBRATION
Photo provided by Flickr

Navier–Stokes equations - Wikipedia

NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of the ramjet to replace the first step of a two-step or multi-step rocket, with the hope of increasing the efficiency and performance of vertical ascent missiles of the present day. The ramjet is considered as a booster motor to boost the primary missile through the atmosphere. It is to be discarded from the primary missile after reaching its maximum velocity. To boost the ramjet to operating speed the second stage rocket must be operated for the first few seconds as a ducted rocket.

General ramjet performance is calculated graphically by using a step-by-step integration process to solve the differential equation of motion. The resulting flight velocity, fuel consumption per initial weight, and altitude are presented graphically in terms of time after launching the ramjet. It is assumed throughout the problem that gravity is constant and that the altitude necessary to start the ramjet is negligible. The acceleration of the missile is limited to 25 g's.

Important results present in this paper are: The most important factor that limits the performance of the ramjet is the air density ratio. The greatest increase in second-step launching altitude, by improved thrust and drag coefficients and increased ramjet cross-section area, is achieved at low ramjet launching velocities. The performance of the ramjet missile operating at a specific fuel consumption of .0007 [...] shows a marked increase of efficiency over a missile using a higher fuel consumption value. Missiles using a lower specific fuel consumption value, of the same order as the increased value, show negligible improvement in efficiency. When ramjet performance is compared to rocket performance; specifically, maximum velocity, altitude of maximum speed and altitude attained, the ramjet missile will burn only one third of the fuel required by a two-step rocket. Conversely, for the same fuel consumed, the ramjet missile will attain 65% more altitude than the two-step rocket.

Solving Projectile Motion Equation with Drag

Put together, the thesis provides acomprehensive understanding of the flight dynamics of a robotic aircraftequipped with articulated wings, and provides a set of control laws forperforming agile maneuvers and for honing the benefits of using highlyflexible wings.

Solving Projectile Motion Equation with Drag ..

There are many different types of provocative motion that induce the motion sickness syndrome. Most are associated with aids to locomotion—in particular, ships, hovercraft, aircraft, automobiles and trains; less commonly, elephants and camels. The complex accelerations generated by fairground amusements, such as swings, roundabouts (merry-go-rounds), roller-coasters and so on, can be highly provocative. In addition, many astronauts/cosmonauts suffer from motion sickness (space-motion sickness) when they first make head movements in the abnormal force environment (weightlessness) of orbital flight. The motion sickness syndrome is also produced by certain moving visual stimuli, without any physical motion of the observer; the external visual world display of fixed-base simulators (simulator sickness) or a large-screen projection of scenes taken from a moving vehicle (Cinerama or IMAX sickness) are examples.