Critical period hypothesis - Wikipedia

The criticalperiod hypothesis also assumes a minimal role for environmental factors.

The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long ..

By the age of eight and one half Isabelle was not easily distinguishable from ordinary children of her age.It is reasonable to consider that she was able to acquire her language because she started learning before the critical period came to an end.The second case was Genie, who was found at the age of about fourteen (Curtiss, Fromkin, Krashen, Rigler, and Rigler 1974).

The Critical Period Hypothesis: Support, Challenge, andReconceptualization.

Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis

Studies of Feral ChildrenSupports most frequently quoted for the CPH are the case studies of the children who had been isolated from language and who tried to acquire the language before and after their critical period.

One is that children's acquisition of a foreign language is different from that of adults'.

It was recorded that her syntax created sentences such as 'the woman is bus the going' and 'banana the eat.'All these cases of children reared in isolated environments reveal the difficulties of learning a language after the critical period.

Therefore, language acquisition basically means the learning or the gaining of a language.


The Critical Period Hypothesis is further supported by experiments ..

Three theories
The three theories of language acquisition: imitation, reinforcement and analogy, do not explain very well how children acquire language. Imitation does not work because children produce sentences never heard before, such as "cat stand up table." Even when they try to imitate adult speech, children cannot generate the same sentences because of their limited grammar. And children who are unable to speak still learn and understand the language, so that when they overcome their speech impairment they immediately begin speaking the language. Reinforcement also does not work because it actually seldomly occurs and when it does, the reinforcement is correcting pronunciation or truthfulness, and not grammar. A sentence such as "apples are purple" would be corrected more often because it is not true, as compared to a sentence such as "apples is red" regardless of the grammar. Analogy also cannot explain language acquisition. Analogy involves the formation of sentences or phrases by using other sentences as samples. If a child hears the sentence, "I painted a red barn," he can say, by analogy, "I painted a blue barn." Yet if he hears the sentence, "I painted a barn red," he cannot say "I saw a barn red." The analogy did not work this time, and this is not a sentence of English.

Second Language Learning And Critical Period.

The field of language acquisition is very experimental becausescientists still do not completely understand how the brain deals withlanguage. Broca's area and Wernicke's area are two parts of the brainthat have long been identified as areas important for language. Broca'sarea is the left frontal cortex, while Wernicke's area is the leftposterior temporal lobe. These areas are connected by a bundle ofnerves called the arcuate fasciculus. Both Paul Broca and Karl Wernickehad patients with lesions with lesions on their brains. The problemscaused by these lesions led to the discovery of Broca's area as thesight for the production of speech and Wernicke's area as tied tolanguage comprehension. The location of these areas, as well as the effects of anesthetizingone half of the brain have lead scientists to believe that language isprimarily dealt with by the left hemisphere of the brain.

Is there a critical period for second language ..

Although she doesn't know it, she is basing her statement on theCritical Period Hypothesis. The Critical Period Hypothesis proposesthat the human brain is only malleable, in terms of language, for alimited time. This can be compared to the critical period referred toin to the imprinting seen in some species, such as geese. During ashort period of time after a gosling hatches, it begins to follow thefirst moving object that it sees. This is its critical period forimprinting. The theory of a critical period of language acquisition is influenced by this phenomenon.