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Antibacterial mechanisms of s and herbs: The antibacterial activities of herbs are multi fold and depend upon the phytoconstituents, concentration of phytoconstituents/phytochemicals and bioactive principles and their synergistic as well as antagonistic actions (; ; ; ; ). These phtochemicals include flavonoids, steroids, β-carotene, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, glycosides, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, gallic acid and others (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Various mechanisms of action and antibacterial abilities of herbal remedies relies on their several beneficial properties viz., immunomodulatory nature with enhancement of both humoral and cell mediated immunity as well ameliorating stress and immunosuppression; cytokine regulation; anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and inhibiting pathogens by a variety of pathways (; ; ; ; ). Many herbs have anti-oxidative potential by counteracting s or metaboloites produced during various biochemical pathways (; ; , ; ). A vast number of herbal plants show anti-inflammatory action by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and thus inhibiting the prostaglandin biosynthesis. Several herbs decreases the production of of inflammatory agents (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin), enhance activity of cortisol and augments bllod circulation which help removing bacterial toxins out of the body (; ). Certain plants contain and carotenoids which have been found to augment both humoral and cell-mediated immune function, thereby reducing risk of infectious by enhancing the antigenic surveillance of the immune system (; ; ; ). Immunomodulation of most of herbal extracts are governed by cytokine regulation as well as anti-inflammatory properties (; ; ; ; ). Certain plants facilitate proliferation of CD4+ T-helper and B type immune cells. Others have been found beneficial in blocking bacterial adherence to different body cells thus help preventing the infection; blocking NF-êB pathway and the motogenic responses in infected cells; causing damage to cell membrane with loss of electrolytes and intracellular contents leading to bacteria death; downregulating the synthesis of LasA protease, LasB elastase and AHL molecules which inhibits the bacterial pathogenesis phenomenon by quorum sensing (; ; ; ; ; ; ; ). Steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones present in herbs enhance engulfing activity of macrophages, increases the activity of white blood cells and other immune cells which in turn enhances their antimicrobial potentials (; ; ; ). All these factors decide the ultimate effect on host and pathogens and remedial effects of various herbs. Such mechanisms of actions, nature of phytoconstituents and potential antibacterial role/applications of many well established herbs and s have been briefly enlisted in and depicted in .
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The toxin inhibited protein synthesis after all 3 schedules of treatment and inhibition was present in cells obtained from bone marrow, spleen, and thymus.
Inhibition (70%) of protein synthesis was induced by 1-10 mg NIV/litre, and thymidine incorporation into DNA was inhibited by as much as 60%; suppression (30%) of uracil incorporation into RNA was slight.
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Oxidative stress and altered immune function: The correlation between and immune function of the body is beyond doubts. The skilled phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils) possess an enzyme, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (; ); which is responsible for the production of ROS following an immune challenge. The host defense mechanism uses the lethal effects of ROS and RNS in the killing pathogens. At the commencement of an , phagocytes increase their oxygen demand by 10-20 folds via., process of respiratory burst. The nascent oxygen generated by this enzyme serves as the starting material for the production of an array of reactive species. Production of other powerful pro-oxidants, such as (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), peroxynitrite (ONOO¯) and possibly hydroxyl (OH●) and ozone (O3) by these cells have also been reported. Although, these highly reactive endogenous metabolites damage all the the bacterial cells non-specifically, they can also injure the host tissues (). Cashewnut, () is an antioxidant and is used in indigenous system for immunomodulation purposes (; ; , ).
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: Popularly known as way bread, is a perennial herb of the Plantaginacea family which grows abundantly beside paths, roadsides and as a weed in crops. The genus name has been derived from a Latin word planta, meaning as sole of the foot. The plant has been extensively used in folklore medicine since long back because of its anti-tubercular, anti-malarial, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The inhibitory effects of the herb have been scientific validated against ,,,, many herpes and adeno viral infections, influenza and viral hepatitis (; ). Leaf extract of contains phenolic compounds, groups, essential s, flavonoids, oleanolic acid, ferulic acid, ursolic acid, carotenes and terpenoids (; ; ). Mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory action is the selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by ursolic acid thus inhibiting the prostaglandin biosynthesis. Acetone extract of L. leaves has shown effective actions against ,,,,,,,,,and. Soluble pectin polysaccharide (PMII) of leaves showed prophylactically protective effects against systemic infections ().(Figwort): is a flowering herb belonging to family . It contains biologically active compounds like phenylethanoids, acylated iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, iridoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. crude extract possess significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and diuretic activities and have been used in the treatment of wounds, psychological, nervous and gastrointestinal disorders (; ).
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I.4.2.5 Biochemical effects and mode of action Ochratoxin A is an inhibitor of tRNA synthetase and protein synthesis in several microorganisms ( Bacillus subtilis, B.