What is the mechanism for the reaction of acetyl chloride and ..

Reaction of Benzyl Chloride with Acetyl Chloride in the Presence of ..
Photo provided by Flickr

Mechanism of reaction between triphenylmethanol and acetyl chloride

The significance of the metabolic pathway in the liver involving 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde is unclear. Existing evidence, however, suggests that this pathway is of minor toxicological importance. In addition to 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde and the GSH conjugate, other potential metabolites include the acetal (the hydration product of the aldehyde), dichloroacetic acid, and dichloroethanol. An initial study with rat liver microsomes found a trace level of 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde but no detectable dichloroacetic acid (Costa & Ivanetich, 1982). A later report using isolated rat hepatocytes detected dichloroacetic acid and trace levels of 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde, 2,2-dichloroethanol, and chloroacetic acid (Costa & Ivanetich, 1984). Forkert (1999a) and Forkert & Boyd (2001), using intact mice, found no acetal in liver cytosol. However, the acetal was detected in the bile in one study (Forkert, 1999a) but not mentioned as being found in the bile in the other study (Forkert & Boyd, 2001). In early studies on the metabolism of 1,1-DCE, none of the potential metabolites from this pathway was reported as being found in the urine of rodents using techniques that readily identified chloroacetic acid (McKenna et al., 1977, 1978a,b; Jones & Hathway, 1978a,b). A pharmacokinetic analysis showed that any dichloroacetic acid formed in the liver is rapidly metabolized in the liver to two-carbon, non-chlorinated chemicals and carbon dioxide (Merdink et al., 1998).

Thiophene-2-acetyl chloride CAS 39098-97-0 | 841865
Photo provided by Flickr

Welcome To Avra Synthesis Private Limited

Acetyl chloride acts as a reagent for the preparation of esters and amides of acetic acid. It is also useful as an important reactant in Friedel-Crafts reactions as well as in the introduction of an acetyl group. It serves as a starting material in the production of pharmaceutical, new plating complexing agent, acylation agent and synthetic organic intermediates.

An unexpected reaction of pyridine with acetyl chloride to give dihydropyridine and piperidine derivatives
Photo provided by Flickr

There are only limited data on the effects of 1,1-DCE in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. In studies conducted in closed systems, the EC20 for inhibition of the growth of a mixed methanotrophic culture was 0.05 mg/litre; the 72-h EC50 for inhibition of growth of green alga was 9.12 mg/litre; and the 96-h LC50 for bluegill () was 74 mg/litre. The limited data on occurrence of 1,1-DCE in surface water suggest that concentrations are in the microgram per litre range, indicating that acute toxic risks from 1,1-DCE for the aquatic environment are minimal. There are no long-term toxicity data with which to assess sublethal effects of 1,1-DCE on any organisms. However, because of the rapid volatilization of 1,1-DCE from the aquatic and terrestrial environments, no significant risk is expected.

Thiophene-2-acetyl chloride for synthesis. MilliporeSigma. Hill Formula: C 6 H 5 ClOS CAS Number: 39098-97-0 UN Number: UN1760. Compare this item
Photo provided by Flickr


Hallbourg et al. (1992) investigated the occurrence of 1,1-DCE in groundwater and surface water near three municipal landfills in Florida, USA, using a method with a detection limit of 1 µg/litre. 1,1-DCE was not detected in any surface water or in any well near two of the landfills. At the third landfill, 1,1-DCE was not detected in two wells, but was detected in a third well at 24.4 µg/litre.

Use of Bromine and Bromo-Organic Compounds in …

In the early 1980s, annual world production was estimated at 306 000 tonnes (IPCS, 1990). IPCS (1990) estimated that 1%, or 3000 tonnes, was released to ambient air. The US EPA (2002c) reported that 74 tonnes were released to ambient air and 0.06 tonne was released to surface water in 1999 in the USA. For the period 1988–1999, the average annual release to ambient air was 99 tonnes and the average annual release to surface water was 0.39 tonne in the USA (US EPA, 2002c).

1,1-Dichloroethene (Vinylidene Chloride) (Cicads 51, 2003)

Liebler DC, Latwesen DG, Reeder TC (1988) -(2-chloroacetyl) glutathione, a reactive glutathione thio ester and a putative metabolite of 1,1-dichloroethylene. , 27:3652–3657.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

1,1-DCE is not known to occur as a natural product. It is produced commercially by the dehydrochlorination of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in the presence of excess base or by thermal decomposition of methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane). 1,1-DCE is used as a captive intermediate in the production of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b), in the production of chloroacetyl chloride, and in the production of homo-, co-, and terpolymers (latex and resin) (also known as PVDC polymers) (W. Stott, personal communication, 2002). These polymers are produced as emulsion polymers, as solvent-soluble powders for coating applications, and as resins for extrusion and co-extrusion. PVDC copolymers containing 79–90% 1,1-DCE are used to form moisture and vapour barrier coatings and films, with applications as food packaging products. PVDC copolymers containing 10–70% 1,1-DCE are used to improve flame and ignition resistance properties in the final product. Residual 1,1-DCE in PVDC used for food packaging products typically ranges from 5 to