Stage 4- Writing the Research Paper*

This handout provides steps and exercises to eliminate wordiness at the sentence level.

Stage 6- Revising the Research Paper

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Okay, you're ready to write your research proposal. Here are some ideasto help with the task:

'The Red Room' and 'The Cone' were both written by H.G.

19. I must assume you're using some form of word processing on a computerto write your dissertation. (if you aren't, you've missed a major partof your doctoral preparation!) If your study has specific names of people,institutions and places that must be changed to provide anonymity don'tdo it too soon. Go ahead and write your dissertation using the real names.Then at the end of the writing stage you can easily have the computer makeall of the appropriate name substitutions. If you make these substitutionstoo early it can really confuse your writing.

Woolf breaks nearly all the rules of essay writing in her argumentative essay....

There is another problem with the simulation-duplication distinction,arising from the process of evolution. Searle wishes to seeoriginal intentionality and genuine understanding as properties onlyof certain biological systems, presumably the product ofevolution. Computers merely simulate these properties. At the sametime, in the Chinese Room scenario, Searle maintains that a system canexhibit behavior just as complex as human behavior, simulating anydegree of intelligence and language comprehension that one canimagine, and simulating any ability to deal with the world, yet notunderstand a thing. He also says that such behaviorally complexsystems might be implemented with very ordinary materials, for examplewith tubes of water and valves.

What are the characteristics of rural adult learners in an adult educationprogram? (too narrow)

Aroom with a view thesis statement | College – …

Tim Crane discusses the Chinese Room argument in his 1991 book,The Mechanical Mind. He cites the Churchlands' luminous roomanalogy, but then goes on to argue that in the course of operating theroom, Searle would learn the meaning of the Chinese: “…ifSearle had not just memorized the rules and the data, but also startedacting in the world of Chinese people, then it is plausible that hewould before too long come to realize what these symbolsmean.”(127). (Rapaport 2006 presses an analogy between HelenKeller and the Chinese Room.) Crane appears to end with a version ofthe Robot Reply: “Searle's argument itself begs the question by(in effect) just denying the central thesis of AI—that thinkingis formal symbol manipulation. But Searle's assumption, none the less,seems to me correct … the proper response to Searle's argumentis: sure, Searle-in-the-room, or the room alone, cannot understandChinese. But if you let the outside world have some impact on theroom, meaning or ‘semantics' might begin to get a foothold. Butof course, this concedes that thinking cannot be simply symbolmanipulation.” (129)

A Room With a View: Essay Q&A | Novelguide

Searle does not think this reply to the Chinese Room argument is anystronger than the Systems Reply. All the sensors do is provideadditional input to the computer—and it will be just syntacticinput. We can see this by making a parallel change to the Chinese Roomscenario. Suppose the man in the Chinese Room receives, in addition tothe Chinese characters slipped under the door, a stream of binary digitsthat appear, say, on a ticker tape in a corner of the room. Theinstruction books are augmented to use the numerals from the tape asinput, along with the Chinese characters. Unbeknownst to the man inthe room, the symbols on the tape are the digitized output of a videocamera (and possibly other sensors). Searle argues that additionalsyntactic inputs will do nothing to allow the man to associatemeanings with the Chinese characters. It is just more work for the manin the room.

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Many responses to the Chinese Room argument have noted that, as withLeibniz’ Mill, the argument appears to be based on intuition: theintuition that a computer (or the man in the room) cannot think or haveunderstanding. For example, Ned Block (1980) in his original BBScommentary says “Searle's argument depends for its force on intuitionsthat certain entities do not think.” But, Block argues, (1) intuitionssometimes can and should be trumped and (2) perhaps we need to bringour concept of understanding in line with a reality in which certaincomputer robots belong to the same natural kind as humans. SimilarlyMargaret Boden (1988) points out that we can't trust our untutoredintuitions about how mind depends on matter; developments in sciencemay change our intuitions. Indeed, elimination of bias in ourintuitions was what motivated Turing (1950) to propose the Turing Test,a test that was blind to the physical character of the system replyingto questions. Some of Searle's critics in effect argue that he hasmerely pushed the reliance on intuition back, into the room.