Unit 3: Protein Synthesis Notes Flashcards | Quizlet
are cellular substructures where proteins are synthesized. They contain about 65% rRNA and 35% protein, held together by numerous noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, in an overall structure consisting of two globular particles of unequal size.
the two parts of protein synthesis is transcription and translation
, if not most,
mutations are neutral
, meaning that they have
little or no effect
expression of genes
function of the proteins
for which they code for.
are also the
source of genetic variability
in a species,
and some of this variation may be
One beneficial mutation in particular produces
resistance to HIV
, the virus that causes AIDS.
As A Reminder:
DNA ---> DNA is called replication
DNA ---> mRNA is called Transcription
mRNA ---> proteins (with the help of tRNA and ribosomes) is called Translation
in multicellular organisms is usually due to
different patterns of gene expression
rather than to
differences of the genes themselves.
is a gene that is
transcribed into RNA.
This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.
The Organelles of Protein Synthesis - YouTube
Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
three main types
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
carry copies of instructions
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
make up the major part of ribosomes.
Control of protein synthesis ..
We previously stated that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) stores genetic information, while ribonucleic acid (RNA) is responsible for transmitting or expressing genetic information by directing the synthesis of thousands of proteins found in living organisms. But how do the nucleic acids perform these functions? Three processes are required: (1) , in which new copies of DNA are made; (2) , in which a segment of DNA is used to produce RNA; and (3) , in which the information in RNA is translated into a protein sequence. (For more information on protein sequences, see .)
See Explanation Of Protein Synthesis - …
in DNA cause transcription to
when the new RNA molecule is
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
not involved in coding for proteins.
code for proteins
because they are
in the synthesis of proteins.
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
are made by
joining amino acids