What is the three parts of Protein Synthesis ..

3. DNA makes RNA makes Protein (

Unit 3: Protein Synthesis Notes Flashcards | Quizlet

are cellular substructures where proteins are synthesized. They contain about 65% rRNA and 35% protein, held together by numerous noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, in an overall structure consisting of two globular particles of unequal size.

(2)A functional Sxl protein inhibits the defaultsplicing of pre‑mRNA from the

the two parts of protein synthesis is transcription and translation

However,
many
, if not most,
mutations are neutral
, meaning that they have
little or no effect
on the
expression of genes
or the
function of the proteins
for which they code for.
However,
mutations
are also the
source of genetic variability

in a species,
and some of this variation may be
highly beneficial.
One beneficial mutation in particular produces
resistance to HIV
, the virus that causes AIDS.
As A Reminder:
DNA ---> DNA is called replication
DNA ---> mRNA is called Transcription
mRNA ---> proteins (with the help of tRNA and ribosomes) is called Translation
Gene Regulation
Specialization
of
cells
in multicellular organisms is usually due to
different patterns of gene expression
rather than to
differences of the genes themselves.
An
expressed gene
is a gene that is
transcribed into RNA.

The way these building blocks (amino acids) are puttogether gives each protein its own unique structure andfunction.

This code determines the type of amino acids and the order in which they are joined together to make a specific protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its structure and function.

c. The snRNPsassemble onto the pre-mRNA to make a large protein-RNA complex called a spliceosome, providinganother example of ribozymes.


The Organelles of Protein Synthesis - YouTube

Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
RNA,
like DNA,
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
except

for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
).
RNA is like a
disposable copy
of a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
There are
three main types
of RNA:
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
is to
carry copies of instructions
for the
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
is to
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
during
protein synthesis
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
is to
make up the major part of ribosomes.

Control of protein synthesis ..

We previously stated that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) stores genetic information, while ribonucleic acid (RNA) is responsible for transmitting or expressing genetic information by directing the synthesis of thousands of proteins found in living organisms. But how do the nucleic acids perform these functions? Three processes are required: (1) , in which new copies of DNA are made; (2) , in which a segment of DNA is used to produce RNA; and (3) , in which the information in RNA is translated into a protein sequence. (For more information on protein sequences, see .)

See Explanation Of Protein Synthesis - …


Similar signals
in DNA cause transcription to
stop
when the new RNA molecule is
completed.
RNA Editing
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
called
introns
that are
not involved in coding for proteins.
The
DNA sequences
that
code for proteins
are called
exons
because they are
"expressed"
in the synthesis of proteins.
When
RNA molecules
are
formed,
both the
introns
and
exons
are
copied
from the
DNA.
However, the
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
nucleus.
The remaining
exons
are then
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
Proteins

are made by
joining amino acids
into

long chains
called
polypeptides.