We'll use our conventional α = .05.

Step 3: Calculate test statistic

We'll start with the SS terms. Remember the formula for SS is:

This is a subtle point. In effect, both teachers and students are deceivingthemselves. They believe that it is the subject matter itself, the studyof grammar, that is responsible for the students' progress, but in realitytheir progress is coming from the medium and not the message. Any subjectmatter that held their interest would do just as well.

SSGPA = .58 and SSdistance = 18.39

According to Krashen, the study of the structure of the language canhave general educational advantages and values that high schools and collegesmay want to include in their language programs. It should be clear, however,that examining irregularity, formulating rules and teaching complex factsabout the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "languageappreciation" or linguistics.

Structural elucidation of dibromoethane-mediated cross-links between DNA and a DNA repair enzyme pave the way for understanding mutagenesis.

Our robs(3) = -.19 and rcrit(3) = -.805

It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited insecond language performance. According to Krashen, the role of the monitoris - or should be - minor, being used only to correct deviations from 'normal'speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance.

Couple A: Husband - 14, Wife - 11

The output that you get is a correlation matrix. It correlates each variable against each variable (including itself). You should notice that the table has redundant information on it (e.g., you'll find an r for height correlated with weight, and and r for weight correlated with height. These two statements are identical.)

Couple B: Husband - 7, Wife - 6

The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship betweenacquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.

Couple C: Husband - 15, Wife - 18

We can also use SPSS to a hypothesis test with Pearson r. We could calculate the Pearson r with SPSS and then look at the output to make our decision about H0. The output will give us a p value for our Pearson r (listed under Sig in the Output). We can compare this p value with alpha to determine if the p value is in the critical region.

Couple D: Husband - 7, Wife - 4

Past attempts to characterize the structure of protein-DNA cross-links have met with limited success. Standard enzymatic protocols used to digest protein or DNA to obtain individual amino acids or nucleosides, respectively, for analysis frequently fail due to steric hindrance resulting from the close proximity of the two large molecules. Most chemical methods for breakdown of protein or DNA are too harsh and would result in degradation of the cross-link structure. Mass spectrometry methods that are optimal for protein analysis are not ideal for analysis of DNA and vice versa. The only exception to this conundrum is the case of unstable cross-links, such as those involving alkylation at the N7 position of guanine or the N3 position of adenine. Adduction at these positions leads to rapid depurination by thermal decomposition. This frees the adducted base from the DNA while maintaining the bond to the protein, allowing analysis by standard methods for protein adduct detection.