Statistical learning in language acquisition - Wikipedia
Task-conscious or acquisition learning. Acquisition learning is seen as going on all the time. It is ‘concrete, immediate and confined to a specific activity; it is not concerned with general principles’ (Rogers 2003: 18). Examples include much of the learning involved in parenting or with running a home. Some have referred to this kind of learning as unconscious or implicit. Rogers (2003: 21), however, suggests that it might be better to speak of it as having a consciousness of the task. In other words, whilst the learner may not be conscious of learning, they are usually aware of the specific task in hand.
Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis
Language is something we take for granted in human beings, since most children are able to use it acceptably well by the age of 6. However, the acquisition of a language, either the first or the second one, is a highly complex phenomenon whose process is not actually completely explained, especially when acquiring a Second Language, where many variables play a role: learner variables (age, educational background, etc, motivation, needs), variables related to how this language is actually learnt (in a formal/informal situation, what method is used?), transference of knowledge from a previous language system, social factors (to what degree is the learner integrated in the target language community).
AS WE CAN SEE each theory of SLA pays attention to different aspects of the process, but actually, none of them explains completely how competence, especially in the L2 is achieved. At this point, we must pay some attention of what are the differences between 1st LA, and SLA. First all, language learning is not a linear, but a global process, and in this process, there are many differences, according to Gass (1994) the most important are:
the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis are ..
ñ denotes the use of a fixed form of words to serve a convntional purpose. It does not demonstrate creativity in form, human beings make full use of them to communicate creatively, in other words, formulaic speech is the step that puts the learner in a position to perform the analysis which is prerequiste to acquisition.
Language Acquisition And Learning_ Exam 1
Lenenberg and other neurologists studied the function of the brain in the process of language acquisition. There is evidence that as the human brain matures certain functions are assigned to the left hemisphere, one of them is language. He suggests that lateralization of the brain starts at the age of 2 and is completed around puberty. They suggests that this is the reason why children seem to be more able to acquire not only an L1, but also an L2 more easily than adults. Therefore, neurofunctional theories have accounted for SLA in the following aspects:
This is the “predictable natural order” of this hypothesis
3.1.2 Chomsky’s Universal Grammar. As well as in L1 acquisition, he proposes that human beings are endowed with knowledge of Universal Grammar principles. Competence in a FL will be acquired by the same means as in the L1, through the Language Acquisition Device and the construction of personal meaning, using, of course, meaningful imput.
The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis
3.1.1. Behaviourism: Just as in L1 acquisition, behaviorist theories claim that an L2 or any subsequent languages are learned through a process of habit formation, through repetition and reinforcement. This theory had a deep impact in SL Methodologies in the first half of the XX century, giving rise to Audiolingualism in the USA and The Direct Method in Britain.
the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis ..
As we have seen with first language acquisition, there are many theories which try to explain how the acquisition of a second language takes place. But first of all, let’s consider that acquiring a second language is not the same as the first one. First of all, we need to consider that most of the times, SL learners are older than children learning a SL, most of the times teenagers or adults who already have knowledge of “another” system. Second, the environment in which it takes place is most of the times different (through formal education), and third, the motivations, needs, interests of the learners are completely different form those of a child learning to communicate in his/her L1.